Rescuers

We are all rescuers. Which skills and knowledge might you require as a rescuer?

In the same way that knowledge and skills gained through life builds on past learnings and experience, so too does knowledge and skill in resuscitation. Further, every rescuer has a given degree of practise with resuscitation and emergency care.

The New Zealand Resuscitation Council (NZRC) Rescuer Framework has used this philosophy to distinguish eight types of rescuer. This is not a prescriptive vocational guide, but rather a tool to help individuals see where they fit as a rescuer. Knowing this will allow you to find training in resuscitation and emergency care to meet your needs.

Since 1 January 2017, CORE 'levels' courses have been replaced by 'CORE Immediate' and 'CORE Advanced'. Please see the mapping document (page 1, page 2).

Rescuer

Characteristics

People who may be represented

Suggested skills and knowledge

NZRC training

Untrained rescuer

Can send for help and respond under guidance

Adults and children with no training in resuscitation

Recognise unresponsiveness and absence of breathing

Know to call 111

Recognise emergency signage

Follow instructions to do CPR and use an AED

--

Basic trained rescuer

Can initiate basic resuscitation and provide first aid

 

Workplace First Aiders, managers or those otherwise accountable for First Aid in the workplace

As above plus:

DRS ABCD

Simple airway management including choking

First Aid skills

Emergency Care Instructor assessment that uses NZRC guidelines

First responder

Has a duty to respond and likely to be involved with the initial delivery of resuscitation

Police officers, fire service, security officers, lifeguards, airline crew, volunteers

As above plus:

Simple airway adjuncts

Suction

Bag-mask ventilation

Supplementary oxygen

CORE Level 3

(No longer offered)

Health Professional - responder

Holds a formal tertiary qualification in a health-related discipline and is relatively new to their area of practice

May encounter resuscitation events in their occupation or workplace with rapidly-available backup by advanced rescuers

Graduate nurses and midwives

Graduate anaesthetic technicians

Radiographers

Other trained support staff in hospitals and community health

Dentists

Emergency medical technicians

As above plus:

Recognition of the deteriorating patient

Teamwork

Advanced life support for adults and children

Understand "shockable" and "non-shockable" rhythms

Supraglottal airway adjuncts

Awareness of adrenaline and amiodarone in resuscitation

CORE Immediate - Adult

or

CORE Immediate - Adult and Child

Health Professional - early management

As above plus:

Is expected to manage resuscitation events until advanced rescuers arrive

Experienced nurses and midwives

Experienced anaesthetic technicians

General practitioners in metropolitan areas

Paramedics

As above plus:

Manual defibrillation

Awareness of Waveform capnography

Awareness of intra-osseous access

CORE Advanced

 

Professional - advanced rescuer

As above plus:

Is expected to manage and supervise resuscitation events as an advanced rescuer

Hospital nursing supervisors

Senior nursing staff in units where resuscitations are common or expected (such as Critical Care Unit or Cardiac Intensive Care Unit)

Intensive care paramedics

Anaesthetic technicians on resuscitation teams

As above plus:

Leading teams

Management of peri-arrest conditions

Advanced airway managment in teams

Consider and correct (4Hs, 4Ts)

Awareness of prognostication following cardiac arrest

Awareness of post-resuscitation care

Medical provider

As above plus:

Holds a formal qualification in medicine

Registrars and specialists who do not work in emergency medicine, trauma, anaesthesia or intensive care

General practitioners in rural settings

Trainee interns

As above plus:

A more complex understanding of conditions that lead to cardiac arrest, and post-arrest management 

Specialist medical provider

As above plus:

Specialises in providing resuscitation and emergency care

Doctors working in emergency medicine, trauma, anaesthesia, and intensive care

As above plus skills and knowledge that may include:

Advanced airway management

Cardioversion and pacing

Other advanced specialist skills

CORE Advanced

plus extra training not offered by NZRC